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新研究:新物質可阻斷野火產生及蔓延

wjrxm 于2019-10-15發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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研究人員研發了一種效果持久、對環境無害的物質,可預防野火蔓延。是一種新型流體,由斯坦福大學的科學家和工程師發明的。
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New Substance Can Prevent Wildfires from Starting, Spreading

新研究:新物質可阻斷野火產生及蔓延

Researchers have developed a long-lasting, environmentally safe substance that can prevent wildfires from spreading.

研究人員研發了一種效果持久、對環境無害的物質,該物質可預防野火蔓延。

The new fluid is the creation of scientists and engineers at Stanford University in California. A report on their work was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

該物質是一種新型流體,是加州斯坦福大學的科學家和工程師發明的。關于他們研究的報告發表在了美國國家科學院院刊上。

The Stanford team says the treatment could give firefighters a valuable weapon in their battle against wildfires.

這個來自斯坦福大學的團隊表示,該研究的處理方法給了消防員一項寶貴的武器,可以更好地應對與野火的抗爭。

Wildfires destroy an estimated 4 million hectares across the United States every year. In 2018, the federal government spent more than $3 billion on firefighting efforts, with billions more lost in property damage.

野火預計每年摧毀美國400萬公頃的土地。2018年,聯邦政府斥資30多億美元用于消防領域,還有數十億美元的資產損失。

Wildfires have been a very serious problem in the western state of California. Last year, the Camp Fire, in northern California, became the deadliest U.S. wildfire in a century. State officials blamed the Camp Fire for 86 deaths. Officials say it destroyed more than 18,000 buildings, most of them homes.

野火問題已成為西部州——加州——的嚴重問題。去年,加州北部發生的營火成為美國百年歷史中最致命的一場野火。加州的一些官員稱,這場營火導致86人死亡。一些官員表示,這場營火還摧毀了1.8萬多棟樓,其中大多都是家庭住戶。

The new report notes that a large majority of wildfires result from human activities. It says they often start along roadsides, in campgrounds and around electrical equipment. The researchers sought to find a substance that could be deployed to such areas to stop fires from starting in the first place.

這項新報告指出,絕大多數野火都是人類活動所致。報告寫道,野火通常是在路邊、野營地、電子設備附近產生的。該報告的研究人員旨在尋找一種可以部署在這類地區的物質,該物質要能阻止野火產生,這是第一位的。

Firefighters often use chemical fire retardants to put out fires. Fire retardants are materials that can stop or slow the spread of fires. But firefighting crews currently use them only as a kind of reactive tool. This is because the chemical treatments are not designed to stay on trees or other vegetation for long periods. They can quickly disappear because of environmental and weather conditions.

消防員通常用化學防火劑來撲滅火勢。防火劑這種物質可以阻止或者減緩火勢的蔓延。不過,消防隊員們僅將防火劑作為一種非主動使用的工具。這是因為,防火劑這種化學物質的屬性是不易長時間滯留在樹上等植物上的。由于環境因素和天氣因素,防火劑消失速度很快。

Some of the treatments being used are considered short-term solutions. They protect buildings in the path of spreading fires. But they also lose their effectiveness quickly.

用防火劑的手段是治標不治本的。防火劑可以保護野火蔓延路上的房屋,但他們的效用也很短。

The thick liquid tested by the Stanford University team was found to extend the life of the fire retardants without harming the environment.

而斯坦福大學團隊發現,經過測試的粘稠液體可以延長防火劑的生命周期,而且不損害環境。

Such a treatment could open up possibilities for firefighters to take preventive actions before fires even start, notes Eric Appel. He helped to write the new report. Appel is a professor of materials science and engineering at Stanford.

埃里克·阿佩爾指出,這種處理方法可能為消防員在火災起火之前采取預防措施提供可能性。 他幫助撰寫了新報告。 阿佩爾是斯坦福大學材料科學與工程系教授。

The treatment holds the promise “to make wildland firefighting much more proactive, rather than reactive,” Appel said. “What we do now is monitor wildfire-prone areas and wait with bated breath for fires to start, then rush to put them out.”

阿佩爾說,這種治療方法有望“使野外消防更加主動,而不是被動”。 “我們現在要做的是監視容易發生野火的區域,屏息等待著火開始,然后急忙撲滅。”

The researchers worked with California’s Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, or CalFire, to carry out experiments. In those tests, the treatment was put on vegetation in areas where fires often start.

研究人員與加州林業與消防局(CalFire)合作進行了實驗。 在這些測試中,對經常發生火災的地區的植被進行了處理。

The testing found that the material “provides complete fire protection even after half an inch of rainfall,” the study said. Under the same conditions, commonly used fire retardants provided little or no protection from fire.

研究稱,測試發現該材料“即使在半英寸的降雨后也能提供全面的防火保護”。 在相同條件下,常用的阻燃劑幾乎不能提供防火保護。

The researchers said they continue to test the treatment with state transportation and fire officials. This includes one of the biggest high-risk areas for the start of wildfires: roadsides.Alan Peters is a CalFire chief who took part in some of the test burns. “We don’t have a tool that’s comparable to this,” he said. “It has the potential to definitely reduce the number of fires.”

研究人員說,他們將繼續與州交通和消防官員一起測試這種治療方法。這包括發生野火的最大高風險地區之一:路邊。艾倫·彼得斯是加州消防局局長,他參加了一些燃燒試驗。“我們沒有類似的工具,”他說。“這絕對有可能減少火災的數量。”

The development team says the treatment contains only safe materials widely used in food, drug and agricultural products. Over time, the material washes away and breaks down safely in the environment, the researchers noted.

該研發團隊表示,這種粘稠物體只包含對環境無害的物質,這些物質已廣泛適用于食物、藥物、農產品中。隨著時間的流逝,這些物質會沖刷掉,并以無害的方式在環境中分解,這些研究人員如是說道。

Eric Appel said he hopes the new treatment “can open the door to identifying and treating high-risk areas to protect people’s lives and livelihoods.”

埃里克·阿佩爾表示,他希望新的治療方法“可以為識別和治療高危地區敞開大門,以保護人們的生活和生計 。”

I’m Bryan Lynn.

我是布萊恩·林恩。

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