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有爭議的紅肉,是否真的危害人類健康?

hxyxm 于2019-10-15發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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大量食用紅肉一直被認為是與癌癥以及心血管疾病有關聯,但在最新的研究表明,攝入紅肉與癌癥和心血管疾病的發生有相關性。并提出每周可以適當攝入紅肉。
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How Risky Is Eating Red Meat?

科學界新爭論:攝入過多紅肉是否危害人類健康?

Many studies have tied red meat food to cancer and heart disease. But are the risks big enough to stop eating foods like lamb chops and hamburgers?

多項研究認為,紅肉類食物與癌癥和心臟病有關。但攝入紅肉類食物的風險是否高到人們要停止吃羊排和漢堡的地步呢?

A team of international researchers says probably not.

一組由國際科學家組成的團隊認為很有可能不是這么回事兒。

Their findings, published as a series of papers Monday, go against established advice. A group of well-known U.S. scientists even took the unusual step of trying to stop publication until their criticisms were answered.

他們周一通過一系列論文的發表公布了自己的發現成果,他們的發現成果與已經根深蒂固的建議相反。一組知名的美國科學家甚至一反常態——他們試圖停止發表論文內容,等批評內容收到反饋后再發表。

The new work does not say that red meat and processed meats such as hot dogs and bacon are healthy. It also does not suggest that people should eat more of such foods.

他們新發表的論文認為,紅肉和經過加工的肉類——比如熱狗和培根——都是不健康的。論文還建議人們不要攝入太多這類食物。

The new work examined past studies on red meat and health problems. The researchers involved generally support the finding that red meat is tied to cancer, heart disease and other serious health risks.

新研究審視了過往關于紅肉和一些健康問題的研究。參加研究的人大體都支持發現結果——紅肉與癌癥、心臟病等嚴重健康風險有關。

But the researchers also say the evidence is weak. They say there could be other causes for the apparent link -- including a person's other food choices and lifestyle.

但這些研究人員也認為,證據不夠充分。他們說,這樣明顯的聯系可能是由其他原因導致的——比如一個人對其他食物的選擇和他/她的生活方式。

Dr. Gordon Guyatt is with Canada's McMaster University. He was a co-writer of the new work. He said that most people who understand the degree of risks involved would say "Thanks very much but I'm going to keep eating my meat."

Gordon Guyatt博士就職于加拿大麥克馬斯特大學。他是這部新作品的聯合作者。他說,大多數了解其中風險程度的人會說:“非常感謝,但我要繼續吃肉。”

The new work is the latest example of the divisiveness in food research. Critics say scientific findings on the subject often have weak evidence. Defenders argue that nutrition studies can rarely be conclusive because of the difficulty of measuring the effects of any single food.

這項新研究是食品研究分歧的最新例證。批評人士說,這方面的科學發現往往證據不足。辯護者認為,營養研究很少是結論性的,因為很難衡量任何一種食物的效果。

Methods have improved, however.

然而,方法已經改進了。

What we need to do is look at the weight of evidence - that's what courts of law use, said Dr. Walter Willett, a professor of nutrition at Harvard University. He was among those calling for the papers' publication to be delayed.

哈佛大學營養學教授沃爾特·威利特博士說:“我們需要做的是看證據的分量,這就是法院使用的證據。”他是要求推遲論文發表的人之一。

Willett has led studies tying meat to bad health problems. He said the recent series of papers do not consider the especially clear benefits of changing from red meat to vegetarian choices.

威利特帶領研究,將肉類與不良健康問題相關聯。他說,最近的一系列論文沒有考慮到從紅肉到素食選擇的特別明顯的好處。

In the papers, the writers sought to understand the possible effects of eating less meat. They noted the average of two to four servings a week eaten in North America and Western Europe.

在論文中,作者試圖了解少吃肉可能帶來的影響。他們指出,在北美和西歐,平均每周吃兩到四份。

They said the evidence for cutting back was not strong. For example, they found that cutting three servings of red meat a week would result in seven fewer cancer deaths per 1,000 people.

他們說,減少飲食的證據并不充分。例如,他們發現每周減少三份紅肉可以每千人中癌癥死亡人數將減少七人。

Based on the review, a panel of the international researchers said people do not have to cut back for health reasons. But they note their own advice is weak. They also note that they were not considering other possible reasons for eating less red meat -- such as concern for animals and the harmful effects to the environment.

根據該評論,一組國際研究人員表示,人們不必因為健康原因而減少飲食。但他們注意到自己的建議很弱。他們還指出,他們沒有考慮減少食用紅肉的其他合理的原因,比如對動物的關注和對環境的有害影響。

There was disagreement even among the writers. Three of the 14 panelists said they support reducing red and processed meats in the human diet. And, a co-writer of one the papers also called for a publication delay.

本文的諸位作者之間也存在觀點上的分歧。14位專家中,有3位表示他們支持減少紅肉和經加工肉類的攝入。此外,本文的一名合著者也呼吁推遲發表此文。

The journal Annals of Internal Medicine defended the new work. It said the request to have it pulled before publication is not how scientific debate is supposed to happen.

《內科學年鑒》站隊這項新研究。該期刊認為,在此文發表之前百般批評并非科學討論應有的方式。

Experts from Harvard, Yale, Stanford and other top American universities sent a letter to the journal asking that it "retract publication" of the papers. The experts said recommendations that could lead people to eat more red and processed meat were "irresponsible and unethical."

來自哈佛、耶魯、斯坦福等高等美國大學的專家給該期刊發了一封信,要求該期刊取消相關論文的發表。這些專家認為,有些推薦會讓人們攝入更多的紅肉和加工肉類,這種推薦是“不負責任的、不道德的。”

The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) both say red and processed meat may or can cause cancer.

世界衛生組織(WHO)下屬的國際癌癥研究機構(IARC)以及世界癌癥研究基金會(WCRF)都認為,紅肉和加工肉類可能會引發癌癥。

I'm Ashley Thompson.

艾希莉·湯普森為您播報。

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